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AP Psychology
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  Questions

1. The three most basic steps involved in human memory are:
a. attention, rehearsal; and organization.
b. recognition, recall, and relearning.
c. reading, reciting, and reviewing.
d. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

2. By exposing research participants to three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated that people have memory.
a. echoic
b. iconic
c. state-dependent
d. procedural

3. Echoic memory refers to:
a. the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory.
b. a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event.
c. the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of events.
d. a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.

4. Iconic memory : echoic memory :: __________ : _________
a. short-term memory; long-term memory
b. declarative memory; procedural memory
c. visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
d. automatic processing; effortful processing
e. flashbulb memory; episodic memory

5. After Jackie was shown the letters "g, c, k, p, and d" she recalled them as "g, c, j, t, and
d." Her recall errors suggest that the letters had been encoded:
a. semantically.
b. visually.
c. acoustically.
d. automatically.

6. Semantic encoding refers to the processing of:
a. sounds.
b. visual images.
c. meanings.
d. familiar units.

7. For a very brief moment after the lightning flash disappeared, Mary retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of memory.
a. iconic
b. episodic
c. echoic
d. declarative

8. You are shown the words "short, minor, tiny, and petite." An hour later you are likely to have the greatest difficulty correctly remembering whether or not you had seen the word:
a. "snort."
b. "major."
c. "little."
d. "pretty."

9. Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited storage capacity?
a. iconic memory
b. short-term memory
c. state-dependent memory
d. long-term memory

10. While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Judy effortlessly understands the meaning of every word. This ability highlights the importance of:
a. acoustic encoding.
b. procedural memory.
c. automatic processing.
d. iconic memory.

11. Peterson and Peterson asked subjects to count aloud backward immediately after they were presented with three letters to remember. This was designed to prevent:
a. automatic processing.
b. rehearsal.
c. retroactive interference.
d. proactive interference.
e. memory decay.

12. In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Sheryl writes the word 30 times. She is using a technique known as:
a. SQ3R.
b. rehearsal.
c. acoustic encoding.
d. chunking.
e. relearning.

13. Immediately after hearing a list of items that may be recalled in any order, people typically have the most difficulty remembering items:
a. at the beginning of the list.
b. at the end of the list.
c. in the middle of the list.
d. at the end and in the middle of the list.

14. Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of:
a. procedural memory.
b. the "peg-word" system.
c. automatic processing.
d. semantic encoding.
e. visual imagery.

15. Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way to facilitate:
a. semantic encoding.
b. automatic processing.
c. state-dependent memory.
d. proactive interference.

16. As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize
themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of:
a. the serial position effect.
b. imagery.
c. procedural memory.
d. iconic memory.
e. automatic processing.

17. A mnemonic device is a:
a. mental picture.
b. test or measure of memory.
c. technique for encoding language sounds.
d. memory aid.
e. word, event, or place that triggers a memory of the past.

18. The organization of information into meaningful units is called:
a. automatic processing.
b. memory construction.
c. chunking.
d. retrieval.
e. consolidation.

19. In order to remember to buy sugar, ham, oranges, and potatoes the next time he goes grocery shopping, Jim forms the word "shop" with the first letter of each item. He is using a memory aid known as:
a. chunking.
b. memory construction.
c. consolidation.
d. acoustic encoding.

20. Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly units of information.
a. 3
b. 7
c. 12
d. 18
e. 36

21. Although Lisa can learn and remember how to solve a complicated jigsaw puzzle, she is unable to learn and remember the names of people to whom she has been introduced. Lisa is most likely to have suffered damage to her:
a. hypothalamus.
b. brainstem.
c. hippocampus.
d. cerebellum.

22. Procedural memory : declarative memory :: __________ : __________
a. visual encoding; semantic encoding
b. hippocampus; brainstem
c. short-term memory; long-term memory
d. effortful processing; automatic processing
e. skill memory; fact memory

23. Research on the sea snail Aplysia suggests that memory formation is facilitated by:
a. serotonin.
b. RNA molecules.
c. alcohol.
d. chunking.
e. priming.

24. When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being utilized?
a. recall
b. recognition
c. rehearsal
d. reconstruction
e. relearning

25. Which memory test would most effectively reveal that Mr. Green, at age 55, still
remembers many of his high school classmates?
a. recall
b. recognition
c. rehearsal
d. reconstruction
e. imagery

26. Which test of memory typically provides the fewest retrieval cues?
a. recognition
b. recall
c. relearning
d. rehearsal
e. reconstruction

27. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Wilson vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful:
a. state-dependent stimulus.
b. reconstructive signal.
c. retrieval cue.
d. retroactive stimulus.

28. Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of:
a. procedural memory.
b. chunking.
c. the serial position effect.
d. automatic processing.
e. priming.

29. The discovery that words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land best illustrates the importance of:
a. selective attention.
b. state-dependent memory.
c. automatic processing.
d. retrieval cues.
e. rehearsal.

30. After her last drinking spree, Karen hid a half-empty liquor bottle. She couldn't remember where she hid it until she started drinking again. Karen's pattern of recall best illustrates:
a. repression.
b. proactive interference.
c. the serial position effect.
d. procedural memory.
e. state-dependent memory.

31. George was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. George is likely to recall best the contents of that chapter when he is:
a. depressed.
b. happy.
c. relaxed.
d. unemotional.

32. Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be:
a. difficult to retrieve but never completely lost.
b. distorted by our current attitudes and beliefs.
c. much more vivid if they are seldom rehearsed.
d. retrieved in the very same form and detail as they were originally encoded.

33. Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled:
a. that the drivers of the vehicles were intoxicated.
b. broken glass at the scene of the accident.
c. that the drivers of the vehicles were males.
d. the details of the accident with vivid accuracy.

34. Our inability to remember events from our past is most often due to:
a. encoding failure.
b. repression.
c. retroactive interference.
d. the absence of retrieval cues.
e. physical decay of stored memories.

35. Harry Bahrick observed that three years after people completed a Spanish course, they had forgotten much of the vocabulary they had learned. This finding indicates that information is lost while it is being:
a. encoded.
b. rehearsed.
c. retrieved.
d. transferred from short-term into long-term memory.
e. stored.

36. The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called __________ interference.
a. state-dependent
b. retroactive
c. sequential
d. temporal
e. proactive

37. Professor Smith has so many vivid memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty is most easily explained in terms of:
a. retroactive interference.
b. state-dependent memory.
c. proactive interference.
d. repression.
e. deja vu.

38. After studying biology all afternoon, John is having difficulty remembering details of the chemistry lecture he heard that morning. John's difficulty is most easily explained in terms of:
a. encoding failure.
b. proactive interference.
c. memory decay.
d. retroactive interference.

39. According to the interference theory of forgetting, between the time you study for a test and the time you take the test you should:
a. eat.
b. sleep.
c. relax and watch television.
d. engage in physical exercise.

40. Repression involves a failure in:
a. encoding.
b. storage.
c. retrieval.
d. all the above.



Answers

01d 02b 03d 04c 05c 06c 07a 08c 09d 10c
11b 12b 13c 14d 15a 16b 17d 18c 19a 20b
21c 22e 23a 24a 25b 26b 27c 28e 29b 30e
31a 32b 33b 34a 35e 36e 37c 38d 39b 40c



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