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  Questions

AP Practice Test: Cognition (Language, Problem Solving)

1. The use of the word "Caucasian" to refer to a race of people best illustrates the use of a:
a. prototype.
b. stereotype.
c. heuristic.
d. syllogism.
e. concept.

2. A prototype is:
a. a best example of a particular category.
b. language's smallest distinctive sound unit.
c. a mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
d. a rule-of-thumb strategy for solving problems efficiently.

3. With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?
a. A penguin is a bird.
b. A goose is a bird.
c. A robin is a bird.
d. An ostrich is a bird.

4. Susan had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her______of a fish.
a. framing
b. mental set
c. heuristic
d. algorithm
e. prototype

5. The first step in effective problem solving consists of:
a. deductive reasoning.
b. developing an algorithm.
c. hypothesis testing.
d. defining the problem.
e. choosing a heuristic.

6. Jimmy didn't know whether the boy's locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the shorter hallway first. Jimmy's strategy for finding the locker room best illustrates the use of:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. inductive reasoning.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. deductive reasoning.
e. trial and error.

7. An algorithm is a:
a. rule-of-thumb strategy for solving problems quickly and efficiently.
b. rigorously methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
c. best example of a particular category.
d. method of hypothesis testing involving trial and error.

8. Heuristics are:
a. rigorously methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems.
b. mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people.
c. problem solving strategies involving the use of inductive reasoning.
d. rule-of-thumb strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently.

9. The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:
a. save time in arriving at problem solutions.
b. yield more accurate problem solutions.
c. minimize the overconfidence phenomenon.
d. involve greater reliance on inductive reasoning.

10. Ruth resisted changing her answer to a test question after reminding herself that "it's always best to stick with your first answer." Ruth's decision best illustrates the use of:
a. insight.
b. an algorithm.
c. trial and error.
d. a heuristic.

11. After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Laura finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Laura's experience best illustrates:
a. the belief perseverance effect.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the confirmation bias.
d. framing.
e. insight.

12. The tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions is called:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the confirmation bias.
d. the representativeness heuristic.

13. The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a:
a. fixation.
b. confirmation bias.
c. heuristic.
d. prototype error.
e. stereotype.

14. A mental set is a:
a. rigorously methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
b. mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
c. tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past.
d. group of conclusions derived from certain assumptions or general principles.

15. Joan forgot to take a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Joan's oversight best illustrates the effects of:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. belief perseverance.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the availability heuristic.

16. Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Hill, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Hill's surveillance strategy illustrates:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. the confirmation bias.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the representativeness heuristic.

17. The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:
a. judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
b. judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.
c. search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions.
d. cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.

18. The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to:
a. make judgments in a very inefficient, time-consuming fashion.
b. judge event likelihood solely on the basis of event memorability.
c. disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments.
d. judge objects only in terms of their functional utility.

19. The availability heuristic refers to our tendency to:
a. judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
b. search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions.
c. judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.
d. cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.

20. Margaret suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Margaret's conclusion bestillustrates the influence of:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the representativeness heuristic.

21. After learning that her two best friends had recently lost their jobs, Julia began to grossly overestimate the national rate of unemployment. Julia's reaction best illustrates the effects of:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
e. functional fixedness.

22. The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to:
a. cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.
b. search for information consistent with our preconceptions.
c. underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are erroneous.
d. judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.

23. Framing refers to:
a. the way in which a problem or issue is phrased or worded.
b. a methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
c. the grouping of similar objects, events, or people into a simple category.
d. a rule-of-thumb strategy for solving problems efficiently.

24. After taking two years of college economics courses, Lionel thinks he knows enough about business to become a millionaire. At this point Lionel should probably be made aware of:
a. the representativeness heuristic.
b. functional fixedness.
c. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
d. the overconfidence phenomenon.

25. On Monday, the weatherman forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. It appears that Sheryl's behavior was influenced by:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
c. the overconfidence phenomenon.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. framing.

26. In spite of overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator Williams was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported him
in past elections remained convinced of his political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
d. the confirmation bias.
e. inductive reasoning.

27. Encouraging people to explain why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote:
a. functional fixedness.
b. use of the representativeness heuristic.
c. hypothesis testing.
d. the belief perseverance phenomenon.

28. The inferring of a general truth from particular examples is called:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. inductive reasoning.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. deductive reasoning.

29. After carefully observing and interacting with dozens of teachers during her high school and college years, Sharon developed some general conclusions about the kinds
of personal qualities one could expect to find in effective teachers. Sharon's thinking best illustrates the process of:
a. framing.
b. belief perseverance.
c. confirmation bias.
d. deductive reasoning.
e. inductive reasoning.

30. The syllogism is the basis of:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. telegraphic speech.
d. deductive reasoning.

31. A computer program that employs heuristics to correctly solve a crossword puzzle illustrates an application of:
a. inductive reasoning.
b. functional fixedness.
c. parallel processing.
d. linguistic relativity.
e. artificial intelligence.

32. Phonemes are:
a. the best examples of particular categories of objects.
b. the smallest distinctive sound units of a language.
c. rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences.
d. the smallest speech units that carry meaning.

33. In the words "lightly," "neatly," and "shortly," the "ly" ending is a(n):
a. algorithm.
b. syllogism.
c. phoneme.
d. morpheme.
e. prototype.

34. When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word "arms" referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista's correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of:
a. semantics.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. inductive reasoning.
d. morphemes.

35. Syntax refers to the:
a. orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences.
b. derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
c. smallest speech unit that carries meaning.
d. most logical and methodical procedure for solving a problem.

36. At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to:
a. imitate adult syntax.
b. make speech sounds only if their hearing is unimpaired.
c. speak in simple words that may be barely recognizable.
d. selectively reproduce the phonemes that occur in their household's language.

37. A European visitor to the United States asked a taxi driver, "Can you please a ride to the airport me give?" This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the _____
of the English language.
a. phonemes
b. heuristics
c. semantics
d. syntax
e. algorithms

38. At the age of 15 months, Carla repeatedly cries "hoy" when she wants her mother to hold her. Carla is most likely in the _____ stage of language development.
a. one-word
b. babbling
c. telegraphic speech
d. phonetic
e. echoic

39. Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the____stage of language development.
a. one-word
b. babbling
c. two-word
d. phonetic

40. Behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner have emphasized that the acquisition of language can be explained in terms of:
a. the association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities.
b. children's imitation of the words and syntax modeled by parents and others.
c. the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly.
d. all the above.

41. Which of the following is cited as evidence that language acquisition CANNOT be explained solely in terms of imitation or reinforcement?
a. Language acquisition develops normally in the absence of social interaction.
b. Children often form the past tense of verbs like "go" and "swim" by adding the suffix "ed."
c. Children employ telegraphic speech patterns before speaking in complex sentences.
d. It is impossible to successfully reinforce children for correct applications of the rules of syntax.

42. Four-year-old Sarah told her mom, "The doggy runned away." Which theory would most likely emphasize the significance of Sarah's misapplication of a grammatical rule?
a. Bandura's social learning theory
b. Skinner's language development theory
c. Whorfs linguistic relativity theory
d. Chomsky's language development theory

43. The principles of learning emphasized by behaviorists would be most helpful in explaining why children:
a. master the complicated rules of grammar with ease.
b. add new words to their vocabulary.
c. make systematic speech errors based on the overgeneralization of grammatical rules.
d. babble even when they have deaf parents.

44. Karl von Frisch discovered that _____ communicate by means of an intricate dance.
a. ants
b. honeybees
c. spiders
d. flamingos
e. butterflies

45. Research indicates that chimpanzees are capable of:
a. learning to understand spoken English sentences.
b. using sign language to communicate to humans.
c. learning sign language from other chimps.
d. using computer keyboards to communicate with other chimps.
e. all the above.

46. Research on the language capabilities of apes indicates that they CANNOT:
a. communicate meaning through the use of signs.
b. acquire a vocabulary of more than two dozen signs.
c. use signs to communicate with other members of their own species.
d. follow the rules of proper syntax as well as most 3-year-old children.

47. The suggestion that language determines the way we think is known as the _____hypothesis.
a. artificial intelligence
b. social learning
c. belief perseverance
d. linguistic relativity
e. telegraphic speech


Answers

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Fyre's Domain 2002